Inside the hacker's toolbox

Discussion in 'other security issues & news' started by Smokey, Jul 19, 2003.

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  1. Smokey

    Smokey Registered Member

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    The Hacker's Wireless LAN Toolbox

    Hackers—as well as white hat researchers—are notorious for quickly breaking the new security standards soon after the standards are released and they did so again with the standards for wireless LANs. The following are a few examples of the hardware and freeware tools available on the Internet.

    Freeware tools: New WLAN hacking tools are introduced every week and are widely available on the Internet for anyone to download. Rather than wait for a hacker to attack your network, security managers should familiarize themselves with tools and learn how to defend against them. The table on this page gives a few examples of widely available freeware tools.

    Tool Description

    NetStumbler Freeware wireless access point identifier – listens for SSIDs & sends beacons as probes searching for access points

    Kismet Freeware wireless sniffer and monitor – passively monitors wireless traffic & sorts data to identify SSIDs, MAC addresses, channels and connection speeds

    Wellenreiter Freeware WLAN discovery tool – Uses brute force to identify low traffic access points; hides your real MAC; integrates with GPS

    THC-RUT Freeware WLAN discovery tool – Uses brute force to identify low traffic access points; “your first knife on a foreign network”
    Ethereal Freeware WLAN analyzer – interactively browse the capture data, viewing summary and detail information for all observed wireless traffic

    WEPCrack Freeware encryption breaker – Cracks 802.11 WEP encryption keys using the latest discovered weakness of RC4 key scheduling

    AirSnort Freeware encryption breaker – passively monitoring transmissions, computing the encryption key when enough packets have been gathered

    HostAP Converts a WLAN station to function as an access point; (Available for WLAN cards that are based on Intersil's Prism2/2.5/3 chipset)




    Antennas: To connect with WLANs from distances greater than a few hundred feet, sophisticated hackers use long-range antennas that are either commercially available or built easily with cans or cylinders found in a kitchen cupboard and can pick up 802.11 signals from up to 2,000 feet away. The intruders can be in the parking lot or completely out of site.

    Breaking encryption tools: The industry's initial encryption technology, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), was quickly broken by published tools WEPCrack and AirSnort, which exploit vulnerabilities in the WEP encryption algorithm. WEPCrack and AirSnort passively observe WLAN traffic until they collect enough data to recognize repetitions and break the encryption key.

    Breaking 802.1x authentication tools: The next step in the evolution of WLAN security was the introduction of 802.1x for port-based authentication. However, University of Maryland professor William Arbaugh published a research paper in February 2002 that demonstrated how the newly proposed security standard can be defeated. The IEEE is now working on a new standard, 802.11i, which is expected to be ratified in 2004.

    War driving tools: To locate the physical presence of WLANs, hackers developed scanning and probing tools that introduced the concept of "war driving" -- driving around a city in a car to discover unprotected WLANs. User-friendly Windows-based freeware tools, such as Netstumbler, probe the airwaves in search of access points that broadcasted their service set identifiers (SSID) and offer easy ways to find open networks. More advanced tools, such as Kismet, were then introduced on Linux systems to passively monitor wireless traffic. Both Netstumbler and Kismet work in tandem with a Global Positioning System to map exact locations of the identified WLANs. These maps and data are posted on Web sites such as www.wigle.net and www.wifinder.com where wireless freeloaders and other hackers can locate these open networks.


    Attacks at DefCon

    One of the best ways to study what kind of attacks you can expect and what tools attackers will use is to study what happens at DefCon. At DefCon X in August 2002, AirDefense surveyed the WLAN at the Las Vegas convention for two hours and identified more than 10 previously undocumented methods for wireless attacks. That information showed us that hackers had become a lot more creative in learning how to manipulate 802.11. The result was a new flavors of denial-of-service attacks, identity thefts and man-in-the-middle attacks.

    During the two hours of monitoring the conference's WLAN, AirDefense identified eight sanctioned access points, 35 rogue access points and more than 800 different station addresses.

    AirDefense's 802.11 security experts estimated that 200 to 300 of the station addresses were fakes because roughly 350 people were in the WLAN network room at a single time.

    AirDefense discovered 115 peer-to-peer ad hoc networks and identified 123 stations that launched a total of 807 attacks during the two hours.
    Among the 807 attacks:

    490 were wireless probes from tools such as Netstumbler and Kismet, which were used to scan the network and determine who was most vulnerable to greater attacks.
    190 were identity thefts, such as when MAC addresses and SSIDs were spoofed to assume the identity of another user.
    100 were varying forms of denial-of-service attacks that either jammed the airwaves with noise to shut down an access point, targeted specific stations by continually disconnecting them from an access point, or forced stations to route their traffic through other stations that ultimately didn't connect back to the network.
    And 27 attacks came from out-of-specification management frames where hackers launched attacks that exploited 802.11 protocols to take over other stations and control the network.
    Of the more than 10 new types of attacks identified by AirDefense, the company's 802.11 security experts determined that many were new forms of denial-of-service attacks. But an apparent danger came from the growing number of ways in which hackers have learned to abuse 802.11 protocols.

    Source: ComputerWorld
     
  2. Pilli

    Pilli Registered Member

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    Now where did I put the Pringle tube :D
    In the UK they call it "War Chalking" and if you walk around London or any town you can see the war chalk marks where you can make your free connection.
    If you want real security in networking you need a Tempest box(s), fibre optic connections & real good cryptology tools & programmes. Such as used by the intelligence services. Mind you that still does not stop all, because, well, humans are humans & not computers therefore create the weakest link. :rolleyes:
     
  3. Smokey

    Smokey Registered Member

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    I know you can't stop all, but as long to many people do nothing to protect themselves against the evil and bad boys/girls around us I think it's our "duty" to place articles like above to wake them up (maybe :rolleyes:)
     
  4. Pilli

    Pilli Registered Member

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    We can do that for sure but unfortunately most ppl are ignorant of the need to visit sites such as this unless directed here when they have a problem.
    Spreading the "Word" is good but only when ppl want to listen.
     
  5. DolfTraanberg

    DolfTraanberg Registered Member

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    I suppose when every internet user will be a Wilders member, Paul has a serous problem.... :D
     
  6. Jooske

    Jooske Registered Member

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    Just reversing ms backdoors using their servers space completely transparant.
     
  7. Pilli

    Pilli Registered Member

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    Dolf, Paul would but many users would not ;) The mind boggles!
     
  8. Paul Wilders

    Paul Wilders Administrator

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    Taking up the challenge: let them all sign up, Dolf ;) Member no. 20,000,000 (for starters) will be awarded with lots of valuable software - and a free hair cut as a bonus (we don't play cheap over here!)

    regards.

    paul
     
  9. Pilli

    Pilli Registered Member

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    Watch it Paul, You'll be trowing in a packet of ciggies if your not careful :p
     
  10. Paul Wilders

    Paul Wilders Administrator

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    Oops..no way :D

    regards.

    paul
     
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